A unique monument of ancient Khorezm is the remains of the city of Ayaz-Kala, whose fortress is located on a cliff cliff, such a location successfully defended against a sudden attack of the enemy, thanks to the rocky cliff, access was almost impossible, and the entrance was protected by a complex labyrinth. Strong wind currents carried dust and debris out of the fortress, hence the name Ayaz-Kala, which means - Fortress in the wind.
Thanks to the work of archaeologists, in 1938, the world learned about the existence of an ancient settlement called Kyrk-kyz-kala, which means "Fortress of Forty Maidens" and is a defensive structure of the north-eastern borders of the territory of prosperous Khorezm.
Koi-Krylgan-kala - the remains of this settlement are notable for the presence of burial monuments, because the fortress was, in a way, a tomb and at the same time a temple where astronomical sciences were studied and ritual ceremonies were performed.
You can hear a legend about the JANBAS-KALA fortress, about how, thanks to one surviving girl, after the fall of the city, who brought out a spark of the sacred flame, the night will always be replaced by day, where this fire burns, the story is silent.
In Karakalpakstan, not far from the Toprak-kala fortress, defending the borders of the northeast, there is the Kyzyl-Kala fortress, rising on a plain and practically in the shape of a square, measuring 65x63 m, double walls, loopholes and observation towers. The fortress was also an agricultural object, as well as a transport hub for caravan routes.
At that time, Khorezm was at the peak of economic development and recovery, new cities were being built such as Bazar-Kala, Koy-Krylgan-Kala, the successful development of crafts, medicine, architecture, astrology was noticed.
Somewhere from the middle of the first and the beginning of the second century BC, Khorezm is part of the Kushan kingdom as a confederation, but by the third century BC it becomes completely independent. This period was marked by the construction of a large number of defensive structures for the regular army of Kyzyl-Kala and the construction of entire cities and fortresses.
The pride of that era and the crown of artistic creation can be called the settlement known to the whole east called Toprak-kala, which is a symbiosis of painting, architectural art and sculpture, and, the difference from the pyramids of Egypt and the Babylonian palaces, is that all construction was carried out without using wood and stone, and huge blocks of mud bricks were used. Small stones provided by the desert itself were used to strengthen the masonry. River sand was also used in the construction, with the help of which moisture was retained and this contributed to the reduction of damage during earthquakes.
Of great interest for the guests of the city of Nukus is the Museum of Art named after I.V. Savitsky, there are exhibits of Russian painting of the twenties and thirties of the twentieth century. An artist from Moscow, Igor Vitalievich Savitsky, moved to Nukus in the fifties of the last century, and already in one thousand nine hundred and ninety-six, he took over as director of the museum, it was then that he began to engage in the selection of paintings of avant-garde art, modern painting, post-avant-garde art. All these works could be seen in Nukus back in those days.
Today, the museum has about ninety thousand paintings. The works of Uzbek masters, masters of the relict Khorezm, folk applied art and even excellent copies of the world-famous paintings from the Louvre were added to the Russian canvases. The first floor of the Savitsky Museum houses the Local Lore Museum, created in 1929 with a collection of fifty-six thousand copies.
The main directions of the presented exhibits are: ethnos, nature and archeology. The attention of tourists will be attracted with great precision created models of historical settlements, household items found during excavations, clothes of that time with jewelry, rich embroidery and extraordinary ornaments, created by the hands of talented craftsmen.
Having visited the Berdakh museum, the guests of the autonomy, thanks to the exhibits displayed in the museum, can familiarize themselves with and trace the historical path of the people of Uzbekistan from ancient times to our days.