One of the most ancient cities on the territory of Uzbekistan is the city of Margilan. The city is located four hundred and seventy-five meters above sea level in the foothills of the Altai ridge, its area is fifty square kilometers, the population is two hundred thousand people. The appearance of Margilan is dated, according to documentary-historical sources, from the first to the second century BC.
Margilan can be safely called the cradle of science, the birthplace of great figures of art and culture, handicrafts of craftsmen. Margilan is especially famous as a city where craftsmen create wonderful embroidery, handicrafts (skullcaps, suzane), exquisite carving on wooden surfaces and ganch.
The local population is especially proud of the production of fabrics from the finest natural silk. The khan-atlases, bekasams and adras are known all over the world for their iridescent colors. And today Margilan is one of the largest centers of silk processing in the territory of Central Asia, which explains the presence in the city of several factories engaged in the production of both silk itself and silk products.
But in addition to silk production, Margilan is famous for its bright, eventful history, preserved ancient traditions, architectural landmarks that are world-class art monuments.
Factory "Yodgorlik" - a silk-making factory built and commissioned in 1972 and at that time one of the largest enterprises along the entire length of the Fergana Valley. Until one thousand nine hundred and ninety-three, its form of ownership was state, and in the year two thousand it passed into private ownership. The structure of the enterprise is quite simple and consists of a workshop for the production of silk threads, a workshop for weaving warp, a workshop for carpet weaving and an engineering and technical department.
It is unlikely that all this production would have become interesting for visitors, if not for one "But": tourists who visited the factory can see with their own eyes the ancient technologies of manual silk production that have come down to our times. On a tour of the workshops, you can see the process of creating silk fabric, starting from the very basics - from magic over a cocoon to the final result.
Visiting the factory and studying the process of creating silk fabrics, guests can purchase a product or a cut of the finest silk.
The memorial complex of Pir Siddiq is about two centuries old, it was created around the middle of the eighteenth century. According to legend, the relics of Saint Pir Siddik, called by the people "Kaptarlik" (which means "Pigeon"), lie here. The complex consists of a mosque, a courtyard with a tomb, a dovecote, a minaret and a darvozakhon.
There is a legend about how, fleeing from the infidels, Pir Siddiq saw a cave on his way and hid in it, praying to the Lord for his salvation. The Almighty, hearing the prayers of the righteous elder, gave him pigeons to help him, which built their nests along the entire entrance to the cave, thereby hiding the elder from the eyes of enemies. The pursuers who ran to the entrance to the cave saw a picture of pigeons peacefully sitting in their nests. Having looked at the calm behavior of the birds, the infidels retreated, deciding that the pigeons would not be so calm if there were people in the cave. Since that time, pigeons have become revered among the local population.
The architectural technique itself and its solution used in the construction of the complex are of considerable interest. Under the darvozakhona, which has a dome-portal appearance, we see an ayvan made according to all Eastern traditions, a four-tiered dovecote, as it were, covers it like a dome.
In the eastern wing of the complex there is a mosque with exits to the minaret and the street, and a little deeper, in the courtyard, you can contemplate the mausoleum itself. The Fergana portal of the mausoleum, in the form of a screen with decorated walls framed by straight columns, can be given a high artistic assessment. The columns end with light domed lanterns. The decoration of the mausoleum is mainly an elaborate carved ganch.
Madrasah Said Ahmad Khodja, built at the end of the nineteenth century in Margilan, in the form of a square courtyard with an area of 32.5x32.5 meters, in the center of which there is an ayvan with an asymmetric mosque. Along the entire perimeter of the courtyard, we will see covered arched vaults and hujras. Even in the most unbearable heat it is cool here, thanks to the shade of the majestic plane trees, the roots of which are nourished by a powerful irrigation ditch flowing through the courtyard.
The walls of the mosque, like the building itself, are lined with burnt bricks, which indicates the presence of masters trained in Russian technique. The ceiling of the mosque is not built in the traditions of the East, that is, it is usually mounted on vertical supports, but here the ceiling is attached to wooden trusses.
Nowadays, the mosque welcomes craftsmen who settled on its territory, who own the technique of sewing with gold, who know how to weave carpets on satin, make products from wood, metal, clay, as well as jewelry.
The Chakar Mosque is called a Muslim prayer house, the construction date of which is dated to approximately one thousand nine hundred and eleven.
The mosque got its name Chakar, as scientists say, because "Chakar" is derived from the name of the Mongol tribe, Tsakar, who settled here in the eighteenth century. The second version of the name: the word "Chakar" in translation means - a copper bridge.
The old building was destroyed, and the new one has significantly changed in size and consists of a small prayer room, ayvan and utility rooms located inside the courtyard. Today, it is impossible to admire all this beauty. Unfortunately, everything was destroyed, except for the preserved ayvan, an asymmetric shape. The ceiling of the aivan is covered with luxurious painting in green and red shades, which adorns rectangular plafonds and intricately carved wooden cornices.
On an inscription in Arabic letters discovered on one of the arched floors, we know that the mosque was built by craftsmen Tukhtabek and Mirbobo Khoja.
The Toron Bazaar mosque is about a hundred years old, so it can be called the youngest mosque, its second name is Furkon. Due to the fact that Margilan was located at the place where the Great Silk Road passed and was one of the many transshipment points of this route, caravan men from different countries chose its market square.
The Toron Bazaar Mosque owes this huge market not only its history of creation, but also its name. Due to the fact that the site for the construction of the mosque was chosen next to the local market, this event influenced its name.
In one thousand nine hundred and thirty-six, the mosque was reconstructed and named the House of the Dehkan (the house of collective farmers or the house of peasants). In this regard, the mosque has changed somewhat functionally and has become something like a rest house for anyone who wants to recover from the unbearable heat in the shade created by the majestic plane trees (another name is plane trees).
Despite such a young age, by Asian standards, the structure of the Toron Bazaar carries cultural value and is a historical heritage. The mosque consists of an iwan supported by carved wood columns and serves as a prayer hall.
Usually, oriental buildings are decorated with exquisite ornaments, bright patterns, carved doors, walls, windows, ceilings, but this mosque is not replete with many paintings and decorations, its decoration can be called quite modest.
The Khoja Maggiz Mausoleum is a unique landmark, a historical site with rather rare original architectural solutions in the Central Asian regions. It is made in the spirit of the ancient Margilan style. The building of the mausoleum was built in the eighteenth century. According to the legend, the mausoleum was built in honor of the great Arab commander Magiz ibn Jabal, who faithfully served the Prophet Muhammad. Magiz ibn Jabal was sent to spread the Islamic faith throughout the valley.
The mausoleum of Khoja Maggiz is distinguished by a rather specific view in the form of a drum with edges at the bottom and a cylindrical shape of the top, but the structure itself looks like a rectangle. The tomb is a double structure and has eight corners, which radically distinguishes it from Islamic architectural stamps. The interior of the tomb is decorated with luxurious finishes in the form of noble, floral-themed patterns and ornaments.
The dome of the entire mausoleum is four and a half meters in diameter. The facade of the building consists of rectangular panels, decorated with patterns in the style of plant themes and carved reliefs. The panels themselves are made of ganch, whole, cast slabs.
The East is always exciting, bright and luxurious. Visit the majestic Margilan, it is not for nothing that they say that it is better to see once than hear a hundred times.